## STATISTICS

### SELECTING THE CORRECT STATISTICAL TEST

#### STEPS

• How many variables do you have?
• How many Independent Variables (IV)
• How many Dependent Variables (DV)
• What types of data do you have?
• Is the IV(s) Continuous or Categorical
• Is the DV(s) Continuous or Categorical
1. Based on the number of variables you have, select the Univariate (1 variable), Bivariate (2 variables), or Multivariate (≥3 variables) section below to find your test.
2. Determine the types of measures (i.e., continuous or categorical) your independent variable(s) and dependent variable(s) are to find the correct tests for your data using the grids within the univariate, bivariate, and multivariate sections below.
3. Once you've found the correct test, click the button to view the instructional videos for conducting your test in SPSS or EXCEL.

### INDEPENDENT & DEPENDENT VARIABLES

#### DEPENDENT VARIABLES

• Independent Variable (IV): In an experiment, it is the variable that is intentionally changed (manipulated) or introduced in order to observe its effect on the Dependent Variable
• Independent Variables also include Person Variables, such as gender, race, ethnicity, personaly traits, etc.
• Dependent Variable (DV): In an experiment, it is the effect or event observed and expected to change as a result of the independent variable being applied or changed.

### CONTINUOUS & CATEGORICAL MEASUREMENTS

#### CATEGORICAL MEASURES

Sometimes called quantitative variables. Called Scale data in SPSS.

Interval variables that can be measured along a continuum and they have a numerical value.

• Intelligence
• Aptitude
• Temperature

Ratio variables are interval variables, but with the added condition that 0 (zero) of the measurement indicates that there is none of that variable.

• Income
• Weight
• Age

Sometimes called qualitative, discrete, or dichotomous variables. Called Ordinal and Nominal data in SPSS.

Ordinal data that has a distinct order. There’s a meaning to the order.

• Two, Three, And Four Star Restaurants
• Ranking TV Programs By Popularity
• 1st, 2nd, 3rd Place Winners!

Nominal data are distinct groups with no meaning to the order.

• Gender
• States
• Colors

### UNIVARIATE ANALYSIS (One Variable)

VARIABLE TYPE SPSS EXCEL
Categorical
Categorical
Continuous
Continuous

### BIVARIATE ANALYSIS (Two Variables)

#### EXCEL

Continuous Continuous
Categorical (≥ 2 groups) Categorical (≥ 2 groups)
Categorical (2 groups) Continuous
Categorical (1 group 2 conditions) Continuous
Categorical (≥ 3 groups) Continuous
1 Group Continuous (≥ 3 conditions)

### MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS (Three or More Variables)

#### SPSS

Continuous Continuous Continuous
Continuous (≥ 2) Continuous
Continuous (≥ 3)
Continuous Continuous or Categorical Continuous
Continuous Continuous or Categorical Continuous
Continuous (≥ 1) Categorical (≥ 1) Categorical (2 groups)
Continuous (≥ 1) Categorical (≥ 1) Categorical (≥ 3 groups)
Categorical Categorical Categorical
Categorical Categorical Continuous
Categorical Categorical Continuous
Categorical Categorical or Continuous Continuous
Categorical (≥ 1) Categorical (optional) Continuous (≥ 2)
Categorical (≥ 1) Categorical (optional) Continuous (≥ 2)